Health Promotion

Health Promotion Model

The main goal that Nola Pender pursued when creating the health promotion model is to present a solid counterpart to other approaches and models covering this respective aspect. According to the nursing theorist view, health does not only mean the absence of illnesses, but also implies dynamism and positivity of human state (Alligood, 2014). The health promotion model reflects the uniqueness of every patient showing that personal experience determines one’s current and further actions. Behavior and knowledge base have motivational significance, and people can easily modify them through own actions and using nurses’ recommendations. Health promotion model focuses on human nature when pursuing health descriptions and interacting with the environment.

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Theory and Purpose of Theory

Through the health promotion, the medical professionals empower individuals to make appropriate lifestyle choices and better manage their conditions. In order to achieve the desirable health outcome, the strategy designed to promote health should focus on concerns expressed by the most vulnerable groups. In order to address their health-related issues, Pender’s model fosters education, professional counseling, and support mechanisms. The practical application of the health promotion model has proved its effectiveness in the improvement of nutrition and reduction in the use of tobacco, alcohol, as well as the engagement in physical exercises.

Purpose of Theory and its Implications

The main purpose of a model is to prevent illnesses as well as help individuals pursue better health using recommendations of medical professionals and through own actions. Nola Pender considers that her comprehensive theory will assist nurses and other providers in recognizing the main aspects that determine one’s behavior. Behavioral counseling conducted by the professionals has proved its effectiveness in promoting the healthy lifestyle among the vulnerable groups. As Pender views health mostly in the context of a positive dynamic state, she pays little attention to the absence of diseases, considering this aspect to be the secondary one.

In her model, Pender covers such aspects as patients’ personal characteristics, experience, cognitions, and behavioral outcome. The theory reflects the uniqueness of human-beings, while their actions depend on features and experience of the respective individuals (Peterson & Bredow, 2013). Health promoting behavior is a fundamental aspect of a model that helps to produce the favorable outcome in the context of health improvement as well as one’s functional ability and quality of life. Changes in lifestyle and preferences may also affect the final result and determine whether the given model has positively affected one’s well-being and contributed to the quick recovery, healing, and health promotion.

Main Assumptions

Pender’s model focuses on assumptions that reflect both nursing and scientific perspectives in the context of human behavior. In order to get and enjoy positive health outcome, the patients, regardless of their conditions, try to properly regulate their behavior and actions. Despite the fact that people live in a complex, ever-changing, and challenging environment, they continue interacting with the outside world. The environment can change individuals and vice versa. The medical professionals are a critical part of the interpersonal environment that affects one’s actions in particular situations. Changes in the personal behavior and preferences, as well as environmental characteristics influence the way people behave in their daily life and at work as well as during the interaction with healthcare providers and family members.


*Pender’s model deals with theoretical judgments that serve as a basis for further research and studies examining human behavior in different contexts. The given model consists of the following propositions: values, beliefs, prior behavior, inherited, and acquired characteristics. The patients are encouraged committing actions and engaging in the behavior that will bring them benefits in the long-term perspective. Due to the barriers that may hinder appropriate actions, the engagement of a mediator may be necessary. If the level of self-effectiveness is high, the patients will face fewer barriers (McEwen & Wills, 2014). Emotions and positive effects increase self-efficacy as well as one’s commitment to the particular actions.

The Engagement in Health Promotion

The individuals start engaging in health-promoting behavior, when they recognize its benefits. Support of family members and professional assistance of medical specialists to enable this kind of behavior are also necessary as, in this case, the positive outcome will be achieved in the shorter terms. Situational influences play a critical role in this context. If there is a commitment to particular actions, the health-promoting behavior will be properly maintained. However, the patients may not enjoy the desirable outcome if they do not control competing demands to the fullest extent. Therefore, healthcare providers pay significant attention to this issue.

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Nursing Metaparadigms

Nola Pender’s health promotion model is a counterpart to other models that mostly focus on the prevention of illnesses. The author defines health as a positive state of wellness, and nurses can significantly assist the vulnerable population attaining a healthy lifestyle and making proper solutions. Health promoting behavior enhances one’s functional ability and improves the quality of his or her life. The afore-mentioned benefits profit both the individuals as well as the entire society. The communities enjoy economic prosperity, interpersonal harmony, and face fewer problems associated with suicide, violence, and poor health (Peterson & Bredow, 2013). In this regard, the cost of healthcare services also decreases. The metaparadigm concepts of Pender’s model are explicit and multidimensional, and her philosophical claims are clear. The major aspects are nursing, environment, person, and health. The holistic approach chosen by the eminent nursing theorist supports the philosophy of the entire profession.


The nursing metaparadigm includes such concepts as nursing, health, environment, and person. In addition, they form a model of the discipline (Alligood, 2014). As each concept has its unique interpretation, the practical application of a nursing theory is contingent upon one’s worldview.


The multidimensional concept of a person includes psychological, biological, cultural, and socio-economic variances. Life experience shapes one’s ability to overcome challenges and obstacles as well as foresee the consequences of the individual’s behavior. Every person has own worldview that shapes his or her personality and perceptions.

The link between an individual and the environment, where he or she lives, significantly influences one’s state of health. In the clinical settings, healthcare providers observe patients’ risky behavior, exposure to health hazards, and access to nutritious foods. However, the aspects that are less apparent include social support systems, social and cultural norms, and living situations.

The concept of health is a state of mind, which exists despite the presence of chronic conditions in individuals. However, sickness can destabilize people’s ability to maintain homeostasis. In the period of crisis, caregivers pay significant attention to the disease process. However, the patient’s health status and behavior can change during crisis. Therefore, in order to improve personal well-being, the involvement of a professional medical specialist is necessary.

Nurses play a critical role in facilitating a person’s ability to recognize and reach the balance. In order to support a patient in this endeavor, nurse specialists identify aspects, which are valuable to the client. Moreover, the introspection and collaboration are required in order to empower the patients with knowledge and deliver specific interventions fitting their needs.

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Importance of Theory to Nursing

Nurses must play a crucial role in developing prevention programs. During their implementation, they focus on multidisciplinary interventions to improve caregiving process and decrease the barriers (Im & Chang, 2012). The development of a rapport with patients is critical to empower lifestyle changes as one’s trust in provider’s competence, awareness, and proficiency to personalize the health-related information increases compliance with the healthcare plans. The flexibility of interventions highly depends on the patient’s ability to participate and effectively interact with healthcare providers, including nurses and physicians.

Implications for Nursing Practice

The medical professionals review the issues and medical conditions, and then, provide relevant preventive measures fitting clients’ needs. The application of a health promotion model in the clinical practice helps to increase the patient’s wellness and increase one’s potential. The theorist’s work is significant for nursing practice: it is not limited to particular health behavior, and the mode can be freely and easily used in various clinical settings, including health centers, nursing homes, and workplaces (Peterson & Bredow, 2013). The use of a health promotion model in practice has proved its effectiveness in helping clients quit smoking, properly manage weight, stress, and engage in exercises.

Moreover, the providers can personalize unlimited applications and nursing interventions utilizing the health promotion model and tailor it towards the patients’ preferences and behaviors. The care plans include patient-specific goals. Health promotion approaches focus on the provision of education and counseling that promotes good nutrition, physical activity, and helps reduce the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Pender’s model can be universally used in practice, education, and research.


Using various models, theories, and initiatives, nursing helps to improve the population’s health status. However, the process of enabling patients to expand their control over the health determinants is a complex task. The need for health promotion and disease prevention in the challenging environment is evident, and these aspects have become the core elements of a healthcare reform. Pender’s model can provide the useful insight into the challenges and provide a framework to make proper health-related decisions. Using a health promotion model, nurses can also act as educators and motivational supporters to eliminate all the barriers and help the patients manage their conditions respectively.

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