Management Information System
From the data provided in the case study the problem is glaring that the Outpatient Surgical Center (OSC) will increase the work load of the whole staff which is already limited in number. At the end with the expansion in business there would be the need of an automated system for the whole business in order to handle it in a more controlled way. Along with business expansion the team will also expand. Currently the whole business is managed by the team using “Windows XP on two old IBM PCs and an old HP LaserJet printer” which is no more suitable for the business at NOC so there is the need of a new system in order to cope with the business extension. At the end of the report a survey is performed based on a questionnaire in order to know the attitude of the intended audiences towards adoption of Management Information System. As the visits of the patients are increasing day by day so it is very hard for the staff to manage the whole data manually instead there is the need to automate the whole system. There is a robust sort of issue of patient scheduling which may result in conflicts because of duplicate data or time entry. Moreover it is very hard at NOC to manage the data in an excel sheet which is a sort of file management system. The computerized system will help to manage the patients’ visits with respect to time or scheduling.
Cost is one of the major issues in each and every business that the overall costs incurred during a business are seriously taken into account. At NOC the management is paying huge amount of billing for receiving of the cash. The huge costs are incurred because NOC is using the services of the Medisyst. The services of Medisyst can be stopped if proprietary software for NOC will be at hands. The idea of proprietary MIS will be one time expenditure only and then for the rest of the business there will only be the charges of the maintenance. Currently the business community at NOC is paying £3,400 per month for insurance billing and cash collection. The said expenditure can be reduced easily if and only if there is the availability of fully functional medical domain software or management information system with some customizable features.
There is another issue of handling of the patients’ record. As and when the record accedes the limits in a manual system them it comes very hard for the admin to a handle it. Further there is an issue of space i.e. it is very difficult to manage the files of the patients in too many cabinets and rooms. So it is very hard to manage the data of the patients manually and only solution to handle the data in a secure way is to develop a fully automated system for NOC. With a limited staff it is not possible to manage all the activities of the NOC in an efficient way using a manual file system. Using this manual system the major problem is in chasing the follow up studies in order to improve the overall quality of the NOC because when the record will not be automated then it will become very hard to properly trace the files of the patients for improvements in certain areas.
In order to manage the whole MIS it is very essential that the Project Manager must be fully trained and must have the courage to take those actions which are suitable for the department. He or she must have the ability to motivate the existing staff about the benefits of the MIS implementation in order to remove the fear of the people about automation. Most of the people in the organizations don’t have operational knowledge of the computational systems so it is also vital for the success of the business that the employees must be properly trained. The use of MIS is very essential in order to gain the market leverage. In each and every domain of the life organizations are busy to find out different innovative ways in order to improve their standard in the local and international market. For responsiveness and competitiveness a person are integrating their existing manual systems with the new innovative technologies like IT and IS.
MIS can easily be developed and the industry people are adopting them in order to gain the market leverage and to establish a good relation among customers and the company. The individual PC systems are no more needed by the industrialists because these systems work within a close environment and are not integrated over the network.
Keeping in view the business value organizations across the globe are too much eager to adopt or integrate the innovative technologies with their existing manual systems. So IT/IS specific goals they are going to manage sufficient IT budget in order to gain market leverage. The IT budget in different organizations is generally based on the infrastructure of the organization. The NOC lies in the domain of health care industry. For the last two decades people are spending too much capital in healthcare domain.
This report is analyzing the organization called NOC which is a sort of hospital and lies in the domain of healthcare industry. The very industry is quite different from other industries because IT plays a vital role and has deeper impact on the overall performance and quality of the medical organization. The hospital body is divided into two major types of staff i.e. medical staff and hospital administration which manage the medical needs (Harris 1977). So there ever remains a sort of conflict between the two bodies i.e. medical staff ever remains in the demand of new and innovative technologies while admin demands budget for IT infrastructure in order to fulfill the requirements of the medical staff in an efficient way.
Currently in most of the hospitals admin is using different MIS for different reports, medical billing and also for budgeting. But with the change in business scenarios IT is most widely used in all of the industries for increasing revenue and for gaining market leverage. There are different third parties like Medicare which play a vital role in cost allocation for very complex software systems in order to gain market leverage or in order to increase revenue (Zimmerman 1995). So NOC may increase the revenues with the adoption of an innovative MIS. IT investment is vital for enhanced productivity at NOC. As the concern of IT investment is there always remains a pressure that to manage the budget in such a way that the minimal standard may be achieved in order to fulfill the goals of the organization. Obviously the same pressure seems quite visible at NOC but the IT investment will yield high productivity at the end.
There are different hospitals which are using MIS of providing the services to their customers. Most of the hospitals which are providing their services to their patients exist in the form of corporations and these hospitals posses a chain of branches at different locations. There may be appointed different number of employees in order to perform the operational duties. The major goal of all these hospitals in using MIS is to store and manage the data of patients in an integrated way. The stored data may be used for different purposes like for billing and for quality assurance reviews.
Different technical aspects are taken into account before implementation of an ICT infrastructure. There may be the question currently which operating system is in use by the employees. The Windows Operating System is most widely used in all the societies and currently at NOC the same operating system is used by the employees. So there is the need to implement a MIS using Windows Operating System. There is another reason to support Microsoft Windows Operating System, i.e. on PC and on all the computers which are on network, because of its easy to use and user friendly environment.
Some people have to support the MIS implementation as a beneficial one while some consider it as a mere wastage of money. However the implementation of MIS will help to increase the efficiency of the overall patient treatment process at NOC and will enhance the relationship among all the stakeholders. There is a firm need to treat the patients using automated systems instead of manual systems which may result in loss of data and high costs.
ADVANTAGES OF MIS/IT/IS
The advantage associated with integration of IT/IS in the medical domain can only be seen after adoption of an innovative technology and the replacement of the current system which is a manual one. The management information system plays a vital role in information flow and synchronizes the whole business process and it increases the level of collaboration among different stakeholders at industry and outside the industry. The adoption of Management Information System helps in reducing the overall expenditure incurred by the admin and technical staff. There are numerous benefits which are associated with the integration of the IT/IS in the existing manual system and these benefits are suitable for network leaders (Riggins Mukhopadhyay 1994). Different industries have got a lot of benefits from MIS adoption some of these benefits are as under:
- MIS will provide full control over data management.
- Increases the level of relationship, understanding and collaboration among different stakeholders. The manual system is not able to provide these facilities.
- The adoption of MIS also helps in making the industrial process more mature and increases the level of communication among different stakeholders and also reduces the overall time of industrial operations. But it is not so in a manual system like the one which is prevailing at NOC because the manual system takes too much time in making the business process mature and according to the required standards.
- The MIS also helps in making the customer response faster than the traditional system.
- The automated system is an only solution for business planning and business scheduling but in case of manual systems too much time is required in order to plan and implement the business activities.
- The adoption or integration of MIS in an industry like NOC will help to increase the overall productivity rate and customer response.
- The implementation of MIS seems very costly but at the end the MIS will help to reduce the overall business costs but in the case of manual system the incurred costs are very high.
Currently there are different innovative solutions in the market which reduces the operational costs, time and add value to the existing business. The adoption of MIS at NOC will help in making the inventory record up to date. One of the most important benefits which are associated with MIS adoption is the elimination of uncertainty existing at various stages of the business. Though the implementation of IT/IS or MIS is very beneficial but there are certain loopholes which makes the implementation process very slow like insufficient budget and training as in case of NOC.
The current report is based on a case study called NOC. It is interested to work as a corporation in future so a sort of chain will form in this case. When people have an idea of a corporation then certain factors are also taken into account like strength of the people, resources and budget or capital. The main objective of MIS is to link all different properties of a corporation at a single platform in order to manage the customer count, revenue generation, inventory management, payroll management and staff performance.
When implementing an ICT infrastructure there is the need to consider all the technical aspects in a more professional way. The consideration of budget is one of the factors which stop to choice the options freely. Official in the different domains like medical domain also take interest in online purchase of items using internet or web services. The end users can get the full benefit of the MIS at NOC because the adoption of MIS provides data security, data privacy and controlled access.
With the implementation of a MIS at NOC the management can easily track the business expenditure and ROI (Return on Investment). The MIS paves the way to analyze the data of the patients or customers at NOC and on the basis of this data the management can monitor the overall quality which is being provided to customers. The roles like Accountant, Helpdesk, Customer Services, Technicians and Surgeons can easily get required information without any delay. With the help of MIS the medical experts can add their best in revenue and value generation. The automated process will reduce the time slot of operational activities and ultimately a reduction in cost of administrative activities.
Analysis of the world’s economy depicts that the competition among various competitors is increasing day by day. In order to get benefit in terms of profitability it is not suitable to raise the treatment prices in medical domain. So management has to adopt different innovative solutions like adoption of MIS which play a vital role in traceability issue and traceability of records would help to improve the quality of the organization. The automation of the whole system yields very low costs. The major advantage of MIS is to replace the existing manual system. The adoption of MIS at NOC will result in low labor costs. The cost will also reduce because of the paperless environment and reduction in data redundancy. There is a rare chance of mistake and it will make the medical process mature.
The challenges faced at NOC force that there is the need to adopt a fully automated software application for its routine operations. The major issue, which the Centre will face in future, is associated with its diverse properties. Diverse properties in the sense when there will be different Ophthalmic Centers in the city or country. So there will be the need to link them in way that the collaboration and communication among various stakeholders may become feasible. The MIS will also help in providing a solution to the problem of diverse properties of NOC. There will be an improvement in the billing process also. The workload will reduce because the automated system will help in making reports within few seconds.
The roles which are currently working at NOC can play positive role in company business. Simply there is the need to motivate all the staff at NOC. Most of the people who are working at NOC are very experienced, performing their duties honestly and have realization of their responsibilities. The IT Project Manager has a very sane thinking about the automation system because what the man is doing its all according to the wishes of the top management. Though the man is not free in implementation of IT infrastructure at NOC but there is the need that the opted solution must be scalable because if the business grows within two or three years then again it will be very costly for management to change the whole technology infrastructure. The appreciation for adoption of MIS at NOC is very high.
The manpower at NOC is currently using a little bit IT infrastructure so some people are already familiar with it but a very few roles are quite unfamiliar with IT like Ruth Woods. The people or employee at NOC can easily be shifted towards adoption of MIS. The firms like NOC can easily shift towards adoption of Information Technology or MIS in order to improve their communication process. The usage of MIS will help in reduction of infrastructure and reduction in infrastructure means the reduction in costs. MIS is also suitable in terms of improved efficiency. MIS also provides full control over audit which helps to control the costs of different operations going on in the business environment either technical or non-technical. The senior management at NOC either technical or non-technical elicitated the innovative edge of MIS and its role in adding value to the existing business in an incremental fashion.
People will have to enjoy the easy environment at NOC because of the integration of IT/IS with the manual system of NOC because MIS will help in different operations like purchase, payroll, inventory and many other operations. Employees at NOC are deeply interested in an automated system in order to alleviate the whole business process at NOC. Simply 98% of the people are in the favor of an electronic system. Accountant at NOC is also interested in order to reduce the burden of too many financial calculations which results in late schedules for financial reports. Only one role of receptionist at NOC is little bit fearful or shy about the implementation of an IT infrastructure. But latter it will also become very easy for the receptionist to handle number of patients or customers within few minutes as compared to the manual system.
The issue of redundancy in the medical treatment process will exist only if there will be an incompatible approach adopted for data manipulation. The only resistance which is applicable at NOC is from owner’s side which is not treated as a resistance against MIS implementation rather it is associated with IT Capital. So sorts of conflict exist between IT Project Manager and Owner. For this it is very essential that the issues must be resolved soundly before initiation of the project. There is the need that every thing must be done according to the will and wishes of the owner but with honesty.
Different people at NOC have shown different preferences about MIS using a questionnaire given in Appendix A. They have shown their interests in different operations like cash management, employee management, payroll, patient management, and billing services. The preferences of the employees at NOC are shown in Table1.
MIS Preferences (%)
MIS Preference (%)
|Employee Record Management||98||2|
There is the need of a central decision making in order to find out that at which level there will be the involvement of each and every employee working at NOC. Further it will also help in finding out the expected costs for purchase of IT infrastructure like Hardware and Software, the cost incurred to train the employees in order to switch from current manual system to an automated system. About 98% of the people are interested in the implementation of an IT based infrastructure at NOC which will help to eliminate extra workload faced because of manual system. Employees working at NOC were of the view that the current manual system is no more the need of the business and the manual systems will be thrown away straight forward from most of the industries and they will opt the innovative technologies in order to share the information. When there is a distributed framework of properties then the corporations have to consider more reliable ways for information exchange in order to collaborate and communicate among various offices. During the survey conducted at NOC the top management is more concerned about ROI i.e. return on investment. The ROI is the major goal of each and every organization. But the implementation of IT/IS infrastructure is also associated with many challenges.
The need to implement MIS at NOC is associated with the expansion of the business and it is too much difficult for staff at NOC to manage all the data of patients efficiently. The manual system is too much time consuming and it takes too much time to resolve certain data issues. In order to implement the MIS in its full zest there is the need to encourage or convince the employees that with the use of MIS they can secure their data and they can maintain the privacy of the data. The use of MIS is very simple and there is the need of only motivation by the seniors that they must have to explain the benefits, associated with MIS, to their employees and train them properly on the system. The use of MIS is also crucial in terms of economic leverage i.e. the business in the markets is facing too much competition and in order to sustain the business identity in the market it is very essential to opt innovative solutions. MIS adds too much strength in the business and also helps to change the existing manual systems or process at a given industry. MIS is also a viable solution for real time communication among various teams working in close vicinity or working across a distributed network.
As from the discussion it is evident that the benefits associated with MIS or adoption of IT/IS cannot be neglected. The one time IT investment adds life time business value so at NOC it is recommended that instead of choosing cheap solutions the top management must try to select the more robust and powerful solution. At the moment the Ivy Technologies solution is looking feasible but after expansion of the business the current system will not be feasible for NOC. The Ivy system is handling data of 10,000 patients only and the database may accedes the limits within two or three years. So there is the need to allocate reasonable budget in order to obtain a powerful solution which may sustain at least for one decade.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DR.HARRISON
Dr. Harrison is recommended to take the following steps to solve the issue identified.
– Firstly, Dr. Harrison should improve the relationship between him and Collington He needs to bridge the power gap between him and Collington. Providing him an access to information like the Return on Investment period, the investment limit and other financial matters can prove beneficial and he will feel the ownership of the business. (Paton & McCalman, 2003).
– Dr. Harrison should take step to lessen the work load of Collington. He will need to hire more staff to help Collington and share his work load. It is evident from the issues identified that more resources are required to facilitate Collington in performing his duties like arranging and analysing demonstration visits effectively.
– The doctor needs to exhibit to his staff his trust and faith on Collington. In this way the staff members will also be promoted to do the same. It will prove to be a constructive effort in promoting a healthy organizational culture
– In spite of the lack of knowledge about ICT, Dr. Harrison should encourage Collington to work on designing a proposal for the implantation plan. He also needs to be informed about every target set.
– Dr. Harrison should promote work environment where authority is delegated among the staff. It will make them more responsible and hence improve the efficiency.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MR.COLLINGTON
Collington’s efforts are crucial to solve the bulk of the issues because he is the central person responsible for these system developments.
Here are presented some recommendations to solve the issues mentioned above.
In order to bring process innovation in an organization, it is highly commendable to follow the steps which were presented by Hayes (2007).
– First of all, Collington needs to identify different processes of the organisation and develop relationship between these processes. Diagrams like Rich pictures and Flowcharts etc. can be used to have a look at the working of the entire organisation. This step will prove helpful to identify small but critical details about the organization.
– Then he should spot out the problematic processes by various analytical tools like SWOT, PESTLE and Five forces model etc. After identification, these problematic processes should be classified according to Hammer & Champy’s (1993) classification. It will help in prioritizing that where should he work first.
– When he will have classified and understood the processes and their problems, he will have to design new strategies for rectification of those processes. Here it is important to find out the impact of new strategies on other processes.
The medical industry is improving very briskly and special consideration is given to all the managerial processes either technical or non-technical. In the past the medical domain was busy only in medical practices for revenue generation but now the trends have changed. The medical industry is not only interested in MIS rather the clinics are using e-commerce extensively in order to add market leverage. The integration of MIS or IT/IS solutions with different operations is the representation of the idea that IT/IS is warmly appreciated by all the organizations.