Understanding Cell Respiration Process
Why the Human Body increases Breathing during Exercise
During exercise, the human body increases breathing because of the increased demand for energy and increased consumption during the physical activities. The cause for this increase in breathing during exercise is dynamic. During exercise, an individual goes through forced breathing. As one actively participates in exercise, breathing increases so as to supply the various muscles involved in the exercise with adequate oxygen.
While one is resting, the body conserves a lot of energy in the body tissues. However, as one begins to exercise, the sensory receptors in the muscles send messages to the brain through the nervous system demanding for more energy. As the demand for oxygen rises, the heart rate also increases leading to increase in oxygen intake. The respiratory process takes faster to release enough energy to sustain the organism in the task that is being undertaken. The effect of all this process is increase in breathing during exercise.
In order to avoid fatigue and facilitate the faster acquisition of oxygen, the breathing rate during the exercise must rise. Adams cited that the increased demand for energy during the physical exercises is also caused by the fact that the carbon dioxide produced as a by product of the physical exercise should be eliminated as a toxic by-product of aerobic respiration. The body needs more oxygen while at the same time eliminating the toxins and wastes during physical exercise. This results in a higher heart rate and increased respiration.
Cause of Muscle Soreness during Extensive Exercise
Almost all athletes and many people who exercise have at some point experienced muscle soreness especially immediately after a heavy or an accustomed kind of physical exercise. The acute/immediate soreness that feels like a painful or burning sensation and associated with weakness is often caused by a building kind of lactic acid. The acid increases the muscle‘s acidity.
The second type of soreness is known as delayed-onset soreness (DOMS). Adams posits that by its nature, it often begins a day following extensive exercise. It is mostly caused by more severe exercises that involve eccentric muscle actions. For example, prolonged downhill walking or running can cause DOMS especially in the quadriceps muscles on front of the thigh. This is because these muscles generally act eccentrically in counteraction of gravitational force.
On a general note, muscle soreness during extensive exercises occurs as a result of fewer muscle fibers that are activated during eccentric than in concentric muscle actions. The high force that each of the activated muscle fibers generate damages in the muscle cell’s interior structure. Adams explains that this damage further extends to the surrounding connective tissue. The delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common consequence of a physical activity that stresses the tissues of the muscle. It strains the muscles beyond what the muscles are accustomed to.
The Process of Cell Respiration
Cell respiration is a set reaction processes that are metabolic in nature. These reactions take place in the cells of organisms to convert the energy in the biochemical form into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) then the waste products are released. Aerobic respiration that involves use of oxygen and anaerobic respiration that does not use oxygen are the two common forms of cell respiration. Both the forms of cell respiration begin with the process of glycolysis.
In aerobic respiration, oxygen and glucose are used to produce carbon dioxide, water and ATP. The process involves a reaction between six oxygen molecules and a single sugar molecule. Anaerobic respiration on the hand is a cell respiratory process that occurs in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobes thus still respire through glycolysis without the supply of oxygen. Fermentation process is a typical form of anaerobic respiration and its benefits to the organisms and the society.
Steps involved in Glycolysis
Glycolysis is a chemical and systematic breakdown of glucose and related sugars in the body to facilitate cellular respiration. These chains are the cellular mechanisms that enhance extraction of energy from the sunlight through photosynthesis and through the redox reactions like oxidation. The process of glycolysis involves several steps. These include the phosphorylation of glucose, production of fructose-6 Phosphate, and production of fructose 1, 6-Diphosphate up to the last step. The last step of the process of glycolysis results into the creation of Pyruvic Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate.
Generally, the steps involved in glycolysis are those in which the phosphate groups are manipulated. The manipulation and the reaction are made possible by the presence of enzymes within the cytoplasm. The enzymes catalyze glycolysis as a process. To make the reaction possible through various enzymes, the enzymes must not be exposed to denaturing environment.
The Electron Transport Chain
The electron transport chain is simply referred to the respiratory path that is taken by electrons during glycolysis. This facilitates the reaction between electrons and oxygen from respiration. The electron transport chain is started through the reaction of an organic metabolite and a coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The metabolites that are organic in nature are usually produced from the citric acid cycle and the oxidation process of fatty acids.
In conclusion, cell respiration remains an effective biochemical process that facilitates and supports organisms’ survival and operation in any given environment. It helps yield the energy needed for the normal functioning of the tissues and organs of organisms.